本文摘要:The high-strength carbon fibre made by Japan’s Toray Industries is eagerly sought after by the makers of racing bikes and jet aircraft. It also happens to be perfect for supersonic centrifuges used to enrich the uranium in nuclear bombs.日本东丽工业株式会社(Toray Industries)生产的高强度碳纤维颇受竞赛自行车和喷气式飞机制造商青睐,它们恰巧又是生产成像离心机的绝佳材料,而成像离心机被用作稀释生产核弹所需的铀。


The high-strength carbon fibre made by Japan’s Toray Industries is eagerly sought after by the makers of racing bikes and jet aircraft. It also happens to be perfect for supersonic centrifuges used to enrich the uranium in nuclear bombs.日本东丽工业株式会社(Toray Industries)生产的高强度碳纤维颇受竞赛自行车和喷气式飞机制造商青睐,它们恰巧又是生产成像离心机的绝佳材料,而成像离心机被用作稀释生产核弹所需的铀。For that reason, trade in the company’s high-strength T700 filament is carefully controlled by almost a dozen international bodies. To buy it directly from Tokyo-based Toray requires an export licence from Japan’s Ministry of Economics, Trade and Industry and a two-page end-user certificate.为此,东丽高强度T700碳纤维的交易受到十余家国际机构的严苛管制。要从这家东京公司必要订购这种碳纤维,必须有日本经产省(METI)印发的出口许可证以及两页宽的最终用户证明。But for those who do not want the hassle, there is another place to find suppliers which will not ask so many questions: Alibaba.com, the Chinese trade website owned by Alibaba Group, which listed in the US last week in the third-biggest initial public offering in history.如果想这么困难,还有一个地方可以寻找没这么多拒绝的供应商:阿里巴巴集团(Alibaba Group)旗下的Alibaba.com网站。

阿里巴巴集团近日刚刚在美国上市,为史上第三大首次公开发表认购(IPO)。“Alibaba is a virtual supermarket for proliferation-sensitive items used in the process of producing nuclear weapons,” says Nick Gillard, a researcher at Project Alpha, a non-proliferation research centre at King’s College in London. High-strength aluminium, maraging steel rods (used to make centrifuge rotors), advanced vacuum pumps and gauges used in the enrichment process are all for sale on the site. “Virtually every dual-use item needed for a proliferator to produce nuclear weapons is advertised for sale on Alibaba.”伦敦大学国王学院(Kings College)以防核扩散研究中心Project Alpha的研究员尼克吉拉德(Nick Gillard)回应:“阿里巴巴只不过一个核扩散脆弱物品的虚拟世界餐馆,这些东西能用在生产核武器的过程中。”高强度铝合金、马氏体时效钢(可用作生产离心机转子)、高级真空泵以及稀释过程中不会中用的量规都可以通过该网站卖到。

“核扩散者生产核武器所需的完全所有军民两用物品都可以在阿里巴巴网站上寻找。”These items all have civilian uses as well, which makes their regulation complicated. These and dozens of other categories of “dual-use” goods are controlled by the Nuclear Suppliers Group whose 48 members, including China, pledge to enforce export licences and end-user certificates detailing their ultimate destination, along with a commitment not to re-export or transfer ownership. Dual-use goods are also specifically prohibited for export to Iran by a long line of UN Security Council resolutions.这些商品都可作为民用,因此监管一起就更为艰难。

以上商品——还有另外几十种军民两用商品——受到核供应国集团(NSG)的管制。核供应国集团由还包括中国在内的48个国家构成,允诺实施出口许可和最终用户证明制度,拒绝证书上列明商品最后目的地,并确保会将商品并转出口或出让。联合国安理会(UN Security Council)的多项决议也明令禁止向伊朗出口军民两用商品。

But China has become a hub for illicit nuclear procurement, according to Mr Gillard and other authorities on non-proliferation. This is partly due to the vast size of its manufacturing industry, they say, and because of what one western diplomat calls a “flexible” attitude towards regulation of the trade.然而,吉拉德还有其他核不扩散方面的权威人士都说道,中国已沦为一个非法核采购中心。他们认为,中国制造业极为可观是导致这种局面的一部分原因。还有一个原因在于一名西方外交官所说的中国在涉及交易监管上的“灵活性”态度。A report by the UN Iran Sanctions Committee panel of experts in June gave details of 30 recent interdictions in various countries of finished goods and raw materials bound for Iran or involving individuals known to be involved in the illicit trade of nuclear materials. Of those, 20 were of goods shipped from or originating in China, including high-strength aluminium, ovens, steel bellows, batteries and other items that could be used in Iran’s “prohibited activities”, according to the report.联合国制裁伊朗委员会(UN Iran Sanctions Committee)的专家们在6月公布了一份报告,详尽所列了近期在多个国家实行的30项禁令,这些禁令或者禁令将涉及成品和原材料运往伊朗,或者牵涉到未知参予了非法核材料交易的个人。


其中20项禁令牵涉到从中国发货或原产于中国的商品,还包括高强度铝合金、潮湿炉、不锈钢波纹管、电池及其他有可能被用作伊朗“被禁令的活动”的物品。Most of these items are for sale on Alibaba.com, which functions as a global Yellow Pages for wholesale manufactures, and also listed on 1688.com, a Chinese version of the English site used for domestic business-to-business trade.这些物品大多在Alibaba.com和1688.com都有销售,Alibaba.com是杂货制造品的全球黄页,1688.com则是该英文网站的中文版,专心于国内b2b交易。Alibaba is better known for its retail ecommerce websites Taobao and Tmall, but the business-to-business sites are also successful. In total Alibaba’s domestic platforms accounted for sales of almost $300bn in merchandise by Alibaba’s third-party sellers in the 12 months to June 30 – more than Amazon and Ebay combined. These huge sales numbers, which increased 63 per cent last year, explain why western investors are clamouring for the company’s shares.阿里巴巴旗下最出名的是电子商务零售网车站淘宝(Taobao)和天猫(Tmall),不过其b2b网站也十分顺利。


Analysts say Alibaba has done nothing illegal, noting that the availability of sensitive merchandise on its sites is similar to other third-party issues faced by internet companies, from pirated music on Google to drug precursors on eBay. The fact that dual-use items have legitimate applications makes policing difficult, especially when the problems appear to lie with lax regulatory enforcement by Chinese authorities.分析师回应,阿里巴巴的不道德并无违法之处。他们认为,该公司网站上的脆弱商品问题与其他互联网企业不存在的第三方问题类似于,比如谷歌(Google)的正版音乐问题,以及eBay上的易制毒化学品问题。

军民两用物品具备合法民用用途的事实,令其这类物品的管控十分困难。而在中国,由于涉及主管部门在强迫执法人员方面缺少力度,问题最为引人注目。“Alibaba.com is an open, user-generated-content platform which strongly supports and abides by all international laws and rules related to non-proliferation” the company said in a statement. “Alibaba.com has robust product listing policies in place and will co-operate with law enforcement authorities worldwide to remove problematic product listings promptly upon receipt of notice.”阿里巴巴在一份声明中回应:“Alibaba.com是一个对外开放的、由用户分解内容的平台,该网站反感反对并遵从国际上一切有关核不扩散的法律法规”。“Alibaba.com享有完善的产品下架制度,不愿与世界各地执法机关合作,一接到通报就不会去除问题产品信息。

”With its listing in the US last week, which raised $25bn, Alibaba became the second-largest web company in the world by market capitalisation, behind Google. This places it under US regulatory authority, which may mean it has to get tougher on a range of problems, from the availability of knock-off gifts or electronics to nuclear-sensitive materials.阿里巴巴近日在美国上市并融资250亿美元,按市值计算出来,其已沦为全球第二大互联网企业,次于谷歌。上市后的阿里巴巴要拒绝接受美国监管机构的监督。

这有可能意味著阿里巴巴必需对其网站上不存在的众多问题商品——从假货礼品、正版电子产品到核脆弱材料——采行更为严苛的处置办法。“Having this type of interaction possible online clearly does make proliferation easier,” says Matthew Godsey, a researcher at the Wisconsin Project on Nuclear Arms Control. “It makes it quicker for someone attempting to procure an item for a weapons programme to find someone able to supply it who either doesn’t know or doesn’t care what it will be used for.”威斯康星核武管制研究项目(Wisconsin Project on Nuclear Arms Control)研究员马修戈德西(Matthew Godsey)回应:“在网上需要展开这种对话似乎让核扩散显得更加更容易。

通过网络,想要为某个武器项目订购材料的人可以很便利地寻找能获取该物品的人,而后者不告诉或者不关心买家订购该物品的用途。”Uncontrolled Chinese exports of carbon fibre gained attention after the revelation that a shipment of 7,600kg of Toray T700 carbon filament was seized by Singapore customs officials en route from China to Iran in December 2012. The seizure was revealed this summer in a UN report.今年夏季联合国公布的一份报告透露,2012年12月,一批总重7600公斤的东丽T700碳纤维在从中国运往伊朗的途中被新加坡海关求救。

碳纤维在未受管制情况下从中国流入的问题由此引发了公众留意。The shipment contained carbon fibre in sufficient quantities to make centrifuges for a nuclear enrichment facility the size of Fordow , according to a study by Project Alpha .Project Alpha的研究指出,这批碳纤维的数量充足为一座像福尔多(Fordow)一样大的核稀释设施生产所需的离心机。Toray said it was aiding the UN investigation and could not discuss the details of the case, and declined to name the Chinese counterparty. Toray said it is aware of the grey market in its products in China, some which are resold by the original importers with labels torn off. “When we see our product online we do our best to inform the merchant and they usually remove it,” said Toray. It never does repeat business with sellers caught violating end-user certificates.东丽回应正在帮助联合国调查,详尽案情无可奉告,并拒绝接受透漏涉案中国企业名字。

东丽回应理解自身产品在中国不存在灰色市场,其中一些商品是原进口商扔掉商标后再行展开转手。东丽回应:“一旦在网上看见我们的产品,我们不会尽全力设法告知商家,他们一般来说不会将该商品下架。”对于被找到违背最终用户证明规定的销售商,东丽将总有一天与其解除商务往来。The FT contacted multiple sellers of proliferation-sensitive technologies in China found via Alibaba.com and 1688.com, and all said they were willing to sell without licences and end-user certificates normally demanded of such transactions. Many said they were not aware that their products were controlled or restricted for export, adding that China does not control their products or require export licences. China’s customs service declined to respond to written questions from the FTFT记者通过Alibaba.com和1688.com寻找中国多个销售核扩散脆弱材料的卖家,并与他们联络。




Three factories which advertised Toray T700 high-strength carbon fibre on 1688.com were contacted by an FT reporter posing as a buyer seeking 4,000kg of the controlled filament – over half the amount seized in Singapore. All said they were willing to sell domestically without documentation – a violation of end-user certificates. One also expressed willingness to help avoid export controls. “[Toray T700 carbon fibre] is harder to import than to export,” said the seller, reached by phone in Shandong province. “Japan imposes restrictions on exports, but when we export from China, it depends on what we report it as to the customs.” He said “there should be no problems” if the material is reported as textile fibre instead of carbon fibre.一名FT记者装做买家,想要出售4000公斤东丽T700高强度碳纤维——这一购买量多达了新加坡求救量的一半——并与1688.com网站上促销这种不受管制商品的三家厂商获得了联系。三家都回应不愿在没涉及文件的情况下在国内销售该产品——这只不过违背了须要办理最终用户证明的规定。



Other Chinese factories manufacturing dual-use goods advertised on Alibaba.com said export controls were not an issue. Shanghai Cixi Instrument Company and Shanghai Changjin Metal Products Company, both of which make products controlled by the nuclear suppliers group regulations, said in interviews that there are no restrictions on the items’ exports by Chinese customs.其他在Alibaba.com网站上促销军民两用商品的中国厂商也回应,出口管制显然不成问题。上海瓷熙仪器仪表有限公司(Shanghai Cixi Instrument Company)和上海自傲金属制品有限公司(Shanghai Changjin Metal Products Company)都在生产受到核供应国集团涉及规定管制的产品,但他们在专访中却都回应,中国海关未对这些产品的出口实行容许。Alibaba is not the only site selling nuclear sensitive items. In May, King’s College researchers were able to buy a controlled MKS pressure transducer from a distributor in China using eBay.阿里巴巴并不是唯一销售核脆弱物品的网站。今年5月,国王学院的研究人员就通过eBay从一家中国经销商出售了一部MKS压力传感器。

Ian Stewart, one of the researchers, said the merchant did not request an end-user certificate, nor did the merchant have an export licence for the product. Pressure transducers can be used to control uranium centrifuge enrichment, and thousands are thought to have been procured illicitly by Iran’s nuclear programme since the early 2000s.其中的一名研究员伊恩斯图尔特(Ian Stewart)回应,商家未拒绝获取最终用户证明,而且商家也没该产品的出口许可证。压力传感器可用作掌控铀离心稀释,自本世纪初以来,伊朗核计划据信已非法订购了几千部压力传感器。

Some factories that have been targeted by sanctions for procuring and producing nuclear-sensitive materials have listings on Alibaba. Machine Sazi Arak, a company that has been sanctioned by the EU, the US and other countries for its work at Iran’s Arak heavy water reactor, is listed as a supplier of boilers, heat exchangers and petrochemical equipment.某些因订购、生产核脆弱材料而受到制裁的工厂也经常出现在阿里巴巴网站的卖家名录。曾因在伊朗阿拉克(Arak)重水反应堆的工作而受到欧盟(EU)、美国及其他国家制裁的Machine Sazi Arak公司也在该网站的供应商列表之中,表明为锅炉、传热设备及石化设备供应商。“When it comes to Alibaba’s responsibility, I think this is a tricky one. It would be very hard for Alibaba to monitor all the interactions that take place on its site,” said Mr Godsey. “However, it would be reasonable to expect the company to block companies that have been sanctioned by the UN, the EU, or others for proliferation from using the site to conduct business and procure goods.”戈德西回应:“说道到阿里巴巴的责任,我指出这是个很棘手的问题。阿里巴巴很难监控其网站上的所有交易。

不过,对于那些因为核扩散活动受到联合国、欧盟或其他方面制裁的企业,阿里巴巴理所当然禁令它们利用其网站开展业务和订购商品。”Alibaba’s popularity as a place for sellers of sensitive technology to advertise has prompted tougher efforts to crack down on listings that fall afoul of the company’s guidelines prohibiting “weapons of mass destruction [WMD] or its known associated agents”. A series of advertisements for uranium and gallium, which is used in the production of plutonium warheads for nuclear bombs, was taken down or changed to emphasise non-nuclear applications this year. However, one seller of uranium was still advertising on 1688.com as of Thursday, but within limits. The Hao Thai Lingshou mineral processing plant said it was willing to sell only domestically – not for export.阿里巴巴网站规定,禁令销售“生化、化学、核武器、其他大规模杀伤性武器,及任何为其获取服务、用于解释、咨询、生产、助剂以及违背国际法涉及规定的信息”。


这家取名为灵寿县浩泰矿产品加工厂(Lingshou Hao Thai minerals processing plant)的企业回应,只拒绝接受国内订单,不对外出口。